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The First Book of the Maccabees

The First Book of the Maccabees   [Sefer ha-Makabim]

Chapter 1

1 It came to pass, Alexander the son of Philip the Macedonian, who first reigned in Greece, came out of the land of Cethim, and overthrew Darius king of the Persians and Medes.
2 He fought many battles, took the strongholds of all, and slew the kings of the earth.
3 He went through even to the ends of the earth, took the spoils of many nations, and the earth was quiet before him.
4 He gathered a power, a very strong army, his heart was exalted, and lifted up.
5 He subdued countries of nations, and princes, and they became tributaries to him.
6 After these things, he fell down upon his bed, and knew that he should die.
7 He called his servants, the nobles that were brought up with him from his youth. He divided his kingdom among them, while he was yet alive.
8 Alexander [The Great] reigned twelve years, and he died.
9 His servants made themselves kings, every one in his place.
10 They all put crowns upon themselves after his death, and their sons after them many years, and evils were multiplied in the earth.
11 There came out of them a wicked root, Antiochus the Illustrious [Antiochus Epiphanes], the son of king Antiochus, who was a hostage at Rome. He reigned in the hundred and thirty-seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks.
12 In those days wicked men went out of Yisrayah [Israel], and they persuaded many, saying: Let us go and make a covenant with the heathens that are round about us, since we departed from them many evils have befallen us.
13 The word seemed good in their eyes.
14 Some of the people determined to do this, and went to the king. He gave them license to do after the ordinances of the heathens.
15 They built a place of exercise in Yerusalem [Jerusalem], according to the laws of the nations.
16 They made themselves uncircumcised, departed from the holy covenant, joined themselves to the heathens, and were sold to do evil.
17 The kingdom was established before Antiochus. He had a mind to reign over the land of Egypt also, that he might reign over two kingdoms.
18 He entered into Egypt with a great multitude, with chariots, elephants, horsemen, and a great number of ships.
19 He made war against Ptolemy king of Egypt. Ptolemy was afraid at his presence, and fled, and many were wounded unto death.
20 He took the strong cities in the land of Egypt, and he took the spoils of the land of Egypt.
21 After Antiochus ravaged Egypt in the hundred and forty-third year, he returned, and went up against Yisrayah.
22 He went up to Yerusalem with a great multitude.
23 He entered proudly into the sanctuary, took away the golden altar, the candlestick of light, all the vessels thereof, the table of showbread, the pouring vessels, the vials, the little mortars of gold, the veil, the crowns, and the golden ornament that was before the temple. He broke them all in pieces.
24 He took the silver, gold, and the precious vessels. He took the hidden treasures which he found, and when he took all away he departed into his own country.
25 He made a great slaughter of men, and spoke very proudly.
26 There was great mourning in Yisrayah, in every place where they were.
27 The princes and the ancients mourned, the virgins and the young men were made feeble, and the beauty of the women was changed.
28 Every bridegroom took up lamentation, the bride that set in the marriage bed mourned.
29 The land was moved for the inhabitants thereof, all the house of Yaacob [Jacob] was covered with confusion.
30 After two full years the king sent the chief collector of his tributes to the cities of Yahudah [Judah], and he came to Yerusalem with a great multitude.
31 He spoke peaceable words to them in deceit, and they believed him.
32 He fell upon the city suddenly, struck it with a great slaughter, and destroyed many people in Yisrayah.
33 He took the spoils of the city, burned it with fire, threw down the houses thereof, and the walls thereof round about.
34 They took the women and children captive, and they possessed the cattle.
35 They built the city of David with a great and strong wall, with strong towers, and made it a fortress for them.
36 They placed a sinful nation there, wicked men, and they fortified themselves therein. They stored up armor and victuals.
37 They gathered together the spoils of Yerusalem, laid them up there, and they became a great snare.
38 This was a place to lie in wait against the sanctuary, an evil devil in Yisrayah.
39 They shed innocent blood round about the sanctuary, and defiled the holy place.
40 The inhabitants of Yerusalem fled away by reason of them, her children forsook her. The city was made the habitation to strangers, she became a stranger to her own seed.
41 Her sanctuary was desolate like a wilderness, her festival days were turned into mourning, her sabbaths into reproach, her honors were brought to nothing.
42 Her dishonor was increased according to her glory, her excellency was turned into mourning.
43 King Antiochus wrote to all his kingdom, that all the people should be one, everyone should leave his own law.
44 All nations consented according to the word of king Antiochus.
45 Many of Yisrayah consented to his service, they sacrificed to idols, and profaned the sabbath.
46 The king sent letters to Yerusalem by the hands of messengers, and to all the cities of Yahudah, that they must follow the law of the nations of the earth.
47 They must forbid burnt offerings, sacrifices, and atonements to be made in the temple of Yahwah.
48 They must prohibit the sabbath, and the festival days, to be celebrated.
49 He commanded the holy places to be profaned, and the holy people of Yisrayah.
50 He commanded altars to be built, and temples, and idols, and swine's flesh to be sacrificed, and unclean beasts.
51 They must leave their children uncircumcised, let their souls be defiled with all uncleannesses, and abominations, to the end that they should forget the law, and change all the justifications of Yahwah.
52 Whosoever would not do according to the word of king Antiochus should be put to death.
53 According to all these words he wrote to his whole kingdom, and he appointed rulers over the people that should force them to do these things.
54 They commanded the cities of Yahudah to sacrifice.
55 Many of the people were gathered to those who forsook the law of Yahwah, and they committed evils in the land.
56 They drove away the people of Yisrayah into lurking holes, into the secret places of fugitives.
57 On the fifteenth day of the month Casleu, in the hundred and forty-fifth year, king Antiochus set up the abominable idol of desolation upon the altar of Yahwah. They built idol altars throughout all the cities of Yahudah round about.
58 They burnt incense, and sacrificed at the doors of the houses, and in the streets.
59 They cut in pieces, and burned with fire, the books of the law of Yahwah.
60 Everyone with whom the books of the testament of Yahwah were found, and whosoever observed the law of Yahwah, they put to death, according to the edict of the king.
61 Thus by their power they dealt with the people of Yisrayah, who were found in the cities month after month.
62 On the five and twentieth day of the month they sacrificed upon the altar of the idol that was over against the altar of Yahwah.
63 Now the women that circumcised their children were slain according to the commandment of king Antiochus.
64 They hanged the children about their necks in all their houses, and they put to death those that had circumcised them.
65 Many of the people of Yisrayah determined with themselves, that they would not eat unclean things, they chose to die rather than to be defiled with unclean meats.
66 They would not break the holy law of Yahwah, and they were put to death.
67 There was very great wrath upon the people.

Chapter 2
1 In those days Mathathias [Matthew] the son of Yahchanan [John], the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, from Yerusalem, arose and abode in the mountain of Modin.
2 He had five sons: Yahchanan who was surnamed Gaddis,
3 Simon who was surnamed Thasi,
4 Yahudah who was called Maccabees [Machabeus],
5 Eleazar who was surnamed Abaron, and Jonathan who was surnamed Apphus.
6 These saw the evils that were done in the people of Yahudah, and in Yerusalem.
7 Mathathias said: Woe is me, why was I born to see the ruin of my people, and the ruin of the holy city, to dwell there when it is given into the hands of the enemies?
8 The holy places are come into the hands of strangers, her temple is become as a man without honor.
9 The vessels of her glory are carried away captive, her old men are murdered in the streets, and her young men are fallen by the sword of the enemies.
10 What nation has not inherited her kingdom, and gotten of her spoils?
11 All her ornaments are taken away. She that was free is made a slave.
12 Behold, our sanctuary, our beauty, and our glory is laid waste, the Gentiles defiled them.
13 To what end then should we live any longer?
14 Mathathias and his sons rent their garments, covered themselves with sackcloth, and made great lamentation.
15 Those who were sent from king Antiochus came there, to compel those who fled into the city of Modin to sacrifice, to burn incense, and to depart from the law of Yahwah.
16 Many of the people of Yisrayah consented, and came to them. But Mathathias and his sons stood firm.
17 Those who were sent from Antiochus, answering, said to Mathathias: You are a ruler, an honorable and great man in this city, adorned with sons, and brethren.
18 Therefore you come first, obey the king's commandment, as all nations did, and the men of Yahudah, and those who remain in Yerusalem. You, and your sons, shall be in the number of the king's friends, and enriched with gold, silver, and many presents.
19 Then Mathathias answered, and said with a loud voice: All nations obey king Antiochus, so as to depart every man from the service of the law of his fathers, and consent to his commandments.
20 I, my sons, and my brethren, will obey the law of our fathers.
21 Yahwah be merciful unto us, it is not profitable for us to forsake the law, and the justices of Yahwah.
22 We will not hearken to the words of king Antiochus, neither will we sacrifice, and transgress the commandments of our law, to go another way.
23 Now as he left off speaking these words, there came a certain Jew in the sight of all to sacrifice to the idols upon the altar in the city of Modin, according to the king's commandment.
24 Mathathias saw, was grieved, his reins trembled, his wrath was kindled according to the judgment of the law, and running upon him, he slew him upon the altar.
25 Moreover the man whom king Antiochus had sent, who compelled them to sacrifice, he slew at the same time, and pulled down the altar.
26 He showed zeal for the law, as Phinees did by Zamri the son of Salomi.
27 Mathathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: Everyone that has zeal for the law, and maintains the testament, let him follow me.
28 He and his sons fled into the mountains, and left all they had in the city.
29 Many who sought after judgment, and justice, went down into the desert.
30 They abode there, they, their children, their wives, and their cattle, because afflictions increased upon them.
31 It was told to the king's men, and to the army that was in Yerusalem in the city of David, that certain men who broke the king's commandment were gone away into the secret places in the wilderness, and that many were gone after them.
32 Forthwith they went out towards them, and made war against them on the sabbath day.
33 They said to them: Do you still resist? Come forth, do according to the edict of king Antiochus, and you shall live.
34 They said: We will not come forth, neither will we obey the king's edict, to profane the sabbath day.
35 They made haste to give them battle.
36 They answered them not, neither did they cast a stone at them, nor stopped up the secret places.
37 Saying: Let us all die in our innocency. Heaven and earth shall be witnesses for us, that you put us to death wrongfully.
38 They gave them battle on the sabbath. They were slain with their wives, their children, and their cattle, to the number of a thousand persons.
39 Mathathias and his friends heard of it, and they mourned for them exceedingly.
40 Every man said to his neighbor: If we shall all do as our brethren did, and not fight against the heathens for our lives, and our justifications, they will quickly root us out of the earth.
41 They determined in that day, saying: Whosoever shall come up against us to fight on the sabbath day, we will fight against him. We will not all die, as our brethren that were slain in the secret places.
42 Then the congregation of the Assideans was assembled to them, the stoutest of Yisrayah, everyone had a good will for the law.
43 All those who fled from the evils joined themselves to them, and were a support to them.
44 They gathered an army, slew sinners in their wrath, and wicked men in their indignation. The rest fled to the nations for safety.
45 Mathathias and his friends went round about, and they threw down the altars.
46 They circumcised all the children whom they found in the confines of Yisrayah that were uncircumcised, and they did valiantly.
47 They pursued after the children of pride, and the work prospered in their hands.
48 They recovered the law out of the hands of the nations, and out of the hands of the kings, they did not yield the horn to the sinner.
49 Now the days drew near that Mathathias should die, and he said to his sons: Pride and chastisement have gotten strength, and the time of destruction, the wrath of indignation.
50 O my sons, be zealous for the law, give your lives for the covenant of your fathers.
51 Call to remembrance the works of the fathers, which they did in their generations. You shall receive great glory, and an everlasting name.
52 Was Abraham not found faithful in temptation, and it was reputed to him unto justice?
53 Yahusef [Joseph] in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and he was made lord of Egypt.
54 Phinees our father, by being fervent in the zeal of God, received the covenant of an everlasting priesthood.
55 Yahshua, while he fulfilled the word, was made ruler in Yisrayah.
56 Caleb, for bearing witness before the congregation, received an inheritance.
57 David by his mercy obtained the throne of an everlasting kingdom.
58 Eliyah, full of zeal for the law, was taken up into heaven.
59 Annanyah, Azaryah, and Misayah, were delivered out of the flame by believing.
60 Daniyah in his innocency was delivered out of the mouth of the lions.
61 Consider through all generations: none who trust in Yahwah fail in strength.
62 Do not fear the words of a sinful man, for his glory is dung, and worms.
63 Today he is lifted up, and tomorrow he shall not be found, because he is returned into his earth. His thought is come to nothing.
64 My sons, take courage, behave manfully in the law, for you shall be glorious by it.
65 Behold, I know that your brother Simon is a man of counsel. Give ear to him always, and he shall be a father to you.
66 Yahudah Maccabees is valiant and strong from his youth up. Let him be the leader of your army, and he shall manage the war of the people.
67 Take to you all that observe the law, revenge the wrong of your people.
68 Render to the Gentiles their reward, and take heed to the precepts of the law.
69 He blessed them, and was joined to his fathers.
70 He died in the hundred and forty-sixth year. He was buried by his sons in the sepulchres of his fathers in Modin, and all Yisrayah mourned for him with great mourning.

Chapter 3

1 His son Yahudah [Judas], called Maccabees, rose up in his stead.
2 All his brethren helped him, and all those who had joined themselves to his father. They fought the battle of Yisrayah with cheerfulness.
3 He got his people great honor. He put on a breastplate as a giant, girt his warlike armor about him in battles, and protected the camp with his sword.
4 In his acts he was like a lion, like a lion's whelp roaring for his prey.
5 He pursued the wicked, sought them out, and he burnt with fire those who troubled his people.
6 His enemies were driven away for fear of him, all the workers of iniquity were troubled, and salvation prospered in his hand.
7 He grieved many kings, made Yaacob glad with his works, and his memory is blessed forever.
8 He went through the cities of Yahudah, destroyed the wicked out of them, and turned away wrath from Yisrayah.
9 He was renowned even to the utmost part of the earth, and he gathered those who were perishing.
10 Apollonius gathered together the Gentiles, a numerous and great army from Samaria, to make war against Yisrayah.
11 Yahudah understood it, and went forth to meet him. He overthrew him, and killed him. Many fell down slain, the rest fled away.
12 He took their spoils. Yahudah took the sword of Apollonius, and fought with it all his lifetime.
13 Seron captain of the army of Syria heard that Yahudah assembled a company of the faithful, and a congregation with him.
14 He said: I will get me a name, and will be glorified in the kingdom. I will overthrow Yahudah, and those that are with him, who despised the edict of the king.
15 He made himself ready. The host of the wicked went up with him, strong succours, to be revenged of the children of Yisrayah.
16 They approached even as far as Bethoron. Yahudah went forth to meet him with a small company.
17 When they saw the army coming to meet them, they said to Yahudah: How shall we, being few, be able to fight against so great and strong a multitude, while we are ready to faint with fasting today?
18 Yahudah said: It is an easy matter for many to be shut up in the hands of a few. There is no difference in the sight of Yahwah of heaven to deliver with a great multitude, or with a small company.
19 The success of war is not in the multitude of the army, strength comes from heaven.
20 They come against us with an insolent multitude, and with pride, to destroy us, our wives, and our children, and to take our spoils.
21 We fight for our lives and our laws.
22 Yahwah Himself will overthrow them before our face. As for you, do not fear them.
23 As soon as he made an end of speaking, he rushed suddenly upon them. Seron and his host were overthrown before him.
24 He pursued him by the descent of Bethoron even to the plain. There fell of them eight hundred men, and the rest fled into the land of the Philistines.
25 The fear of Yahudah, of his brethren, and the dread of them, fell upon all the nations round about them.
26 His fame came to the king, all nations told of the battles of Yahudah.
27 When king Antiochus heard these words, he was angry in his mind. He sent and gathered the forces of all his kingdom, an exceeding strong army.
28 He opened his treasury, and gave out pay to the army for a year. He commanded them, that they should be ready for all things.
29 He perceived that the money of his treasures failed, that the tributes of the country were small because of the dissension, and the evil that he had brought upon the land, that he might take away the laws of old times.
30 He feared that he should not have enough as formerly, for charges and gifts, which he gave before with a liberal hand, for he abounded more than the kings that were before him.
31 He was greatly perplexed in mind. He purposed to go into Persia, to take tributes of the countries, and to gather much money.
32 He left Lysias, a nobleman of the blood royal, to oversee the affairs of the kingdom, from the river Euphrates even to the river of Egypt.
33 And to bring up his son Antiochus, till he came again.
34 He delivered to him half the army, and the elephants. He gave him charge concerning all that he would have done, and concerning the inhabitants of Yahud [Judea], and Yerusalem.
35 That he should send an army against them, to destroy and root out the strength of Yisrayah, and the remnant of Yerusalem, and to take away the memory of them from that place.
36 He should settle strangers to dwell in all their coasts, and divide their land by lot.
37 So the king took the half of the army that remained, and went forth from Antioch the chief city of his kingdom, in the hundred and forty-seventh year. He passed over the river Euphrates, and went through the higher countries.
38 Lysias chose Ptolemy the son of Dorymenus, Nicanor, and Gorgias, mighty men of the king's friends.
39 He sent with them forty thousand men, and seven thousand horsemen, to go into the land of Yahudah, to destroy it according to the king's orders.
40 So they went forth with all their power, and pitched near Emmaus in the plain country.
41 The merchants of the countries heard the fame of them. They took silver and gold in abundance, and servants. They came into the camp, to buy the children of Yisrayah for slaves. There were joined to them the forces of Syria, and of the land of the strangers.
42 Yahudah and his brethren saw that evils were multiplied, that the armies approached to their borders. They knew the orders the king gave to destroy the people, and utterly abolish them.
43 Every man said to his neighbor: Let us raise up the low condition of our people. Let us fight for our people, and our sanctuary.
44 The assembly was gathered that they might be ready for battle, that they might pray, and ask mercy and compassion.
45 Yerusalem was not inhabited, but was like a desert, there was none of her children that went in or out. The sanctuary was trodden down, the children of strangers were in the castle, there was the habitation of the Gentiles. Joy was taken away from Yaacob, the pipe and harp ceased there.
46 They assembled together, and came to Maspha over against Yerusalem. In Maspha was a place of prayer heretofore in Yisrayah.
47 They fasted that day, put on sackcloth, put ashes upon their heads, and they rent their garments.
48 They laid open the books of the law, in which the Gentiles searched for the likeness of their idols.
49 They brought the priestly ornaments, the firstfruits, and tithes, and stirred up the Nazarites who had fulfilled their days.
50 They cried with a loud voice toward heaven, saying: What shall we do with these, where shall we carry them?
51 Your holies are trodden down, are profaned, your priests are in mourning, and are brought low.
52 Behold, the nations are come together against us to destroy us, you know what they intend against us.
53 How shall we be able to stand before their face, unless you, O Yahwah, help us?
54 They sounded with trumpets, and cried out with a loud voice.
55 After this Yahudah appointed captains over the people, over thousands, over hundreds, over fifties, and over tens.
56 He said to those who were building houses, or had betrothed wives, or were planting vineyards, or were fearful, that they should return every man to his house, according to the law.
57 So they removed the camp, and pitched on the south side of Emmaus.
58 Yahudah said: Gird yourselves, and be valiant men. Be ready in the morning, that you may fight with these nations that are assembled against us to destroy us and our sanctuary.
59 It is better for us to die in battle, than to see the evils of our nation, and of the holies.
60 Nevertheless, as is the will of Yahwah in heaven, so be it done.

Chapter 4

1 Gorgias took five thousand men, and a thousand of the best horsemen, and they removed out of the camp by night.
2 That they might come upon the camp of the Yahudim [Jews], and strike them suddenly. The men that were of the castle were their guides.
3 Yahudah heard of it, and rose up, he and the valiant men, to attack the king's forces that were in Emmaus.
4 As yet the army was dispersed from the camp.
5 Gorgias came by night into the camp of Yahudah, and found no man. He sought them in the mountains, for he said: These men flee from us.
6 When it was day, Yahudah showed himself in the plain with three thousand men only, who had neither armor nor swords.
7 They saw the camp of the Gentiles that it was strong, the men in breastplates, the horsemen round about them, and these were trained up to war.
8 Yahudah said to the men that were with him: Do not fear their multitude, neither be afraid of their assault.
9 Remember in what manner our fathers were saved in the Red Sea, when Pharaoh pursued them with a great army.
10 Now let us cry to heaven. Yahwah will have mercy on us, will remember the covenant of our fathers, and will destroy this army before our face today.
11 All nations shall know that there is One that redeems and delivers Yisrayah.
12 The strangers lifted up their eyes, and saw them coming against them.
13 They went out of the camp to battle, and those who were with Yahudah sounded the trumpet.
14 They joined battle. The Gentiles were routed, and fled into the plain.
15 All the hindmost of them fell by the sword. They pursued them as far as Gezeron, even to the plains of Idumea, of Azotus, and of Jamnia. There fell of them to the number of three thousand men.
16 Yahudah returned again with his army that followed him.
17 He said to the people: Do not be greedy of the spoils, for there is war before us.
18 Gorgias and his army are near us in the mountain. Stand now against our enemies, and overthrow them, you shall take the spoils afterwards with safety.
19 As Yahudah was speaking these words, behold, part of them appeared looking forth from the mountain.
20 Gorgias saw that his men were put to flight, and that they set fire to the camp, for the smoke that was seen declared what was done.
21 When they saw this, they were seized with great fear, seeing at the same time Yahudah and his army in the plain ready to fight.
22 So they all fled away into the land of the strangers.
23 Yahudah returned to take the spoils of the camp, and they got much gold, silver, blue silk, purple of the sea, and great riches.
24 Returning home they sung a hymn, and blessed Yahwah in heaven, because He is good, because His mercy endures forever.
25 So Yisrayah had a great deliverance that day.
26 Such of the strangers as escaped went and told Lysias all that happened.
27 When he heard these things, he was amazed and discouraged, because things in Yisrayah did not succeed according to his mind, as the king commanded.
28 So the following year Lysias gathered together threescore thousand chosen men, and five thousand horsemen, that he might subdue them.
29 They came into Yahudah, and pitched their tents in Bethoron. Yahudah met them with ten thousand men.
30 They saw that the army was strong. He prayed, and said: Blessed are you, O Savior of Yisrayah, who broke the violence of the mighty by the hand of your servant David, and delivered up the camp of the strangers into the hands of Jonathan the son of Saul and his armorbearer.
31 Shut up this army in the hands of your people Yisrayah, let them be confounded in their host and their horsemen.
32 Strike them with fear, cause the boldness of their strength to languish, and let them quake at their own destruction.
33 Cast them down with the sword of those who love you, let all who know your name praise you with hymns.
34 They joined battle, and there fell of the army of Lysias five thousand men.
35 Lysias saw that his men were put to flight, and how bold the Yahudim were. They were ready either to live, or to die manfully. He went to Antioch, and chose soldiers, that they might come again into Yahudah with greater numbers.
36 Then Yahudah and his brethren said: Behold our enemies are discomfited. Let us go up now to cleanse the holy places and to repair them.
37 All the army assembled together, and they went up into mount Sion.
38 They saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, the gates burned, shrubs growing up in the courts as in a forest, or on the mountains, and the chambers joining to the temple thrown down.
39 They rent their garments, made great lamentation, and put ashes on their heads.
40 They fell face down to the ground on their faces, they sounded with the trumpets of alarm, and they cried towards heaven.
41 Yahudah appointed men to fight against those who were in the castle, till they cleansed the holy places.
42 He chose priests without blemish, whose will was set upon the law of Yahwah.
43 They cleansed the holy places, and took the stones that were defiled away into an unclean place.
44 He considered about the altar of sacrifices that was profaned, what he should do with it.
45 A good counsel came into their minds. Pull it down, lest it should be a reproach to them because the Gentiles defiled it, so they threw it down.
46 They laid up the stones in the mountain of the temple in a convenient place, till there should come a prophet, and give answer concerning them.
47 They took whole stones according to the law, and built a new altar according to the former.
48 They built up the holy places, and the things that were within the temple. They sanctified the temple, and the courts.
49 They made new holy vessels. They brought in the candlestick, the altar of incense, and the table, into the temple.
50 They put incense upon the altar, lighted up the lamps that were upon the candlestick, and they gave light in the temple.
51 They set the loaves upon the table, hung up the veils, and finished all the works that they began to make.
52 They arose before the morning on the five and twentieth day of the ninth month (which is the month of Casleu) in the hundred and forty-eighth year.
53 They offered sacrifice according to the law upon the new altar of sacrifices which they made.
54 According to the time, and according to the day wherein the heathens defiled it, in the same it was dedicated anew with canticles, harps, lutes, and cymbals.
55 All the people fell upon their faces, adored, and blessed up to heaven Him that prospered them.
56 They kept the dedication of the altar eight days. They offered burnt offerings with joy, sacrifices of salvation, and of praise.
57 They adorned the front of the temple with crowns of gold, and escutcheons. They renewed the gates, and the chambers, and hung doors upon them.
58 There was exceeding great joy among the people, the reproach of the Gentiles was turned away.
59 Yahudah, his brethren, and all the church of Yisrayah decreed, that the day of the dedication of the altar should be kept in its season from year to year for eight days, from the five and twentieth day of the month of Casleu, with joy and gladness.
60 At that time they also built up mount Sion, with high walls, and strong towers round about, lest the Gentiles should come at any time, and tread it down as they did before.
61 He placed a garrison there to keep it, and he fortified it to secure Bethsura, that the people might have a defence against Idumea.

Chapter 5

1 Now it came to pass, when the nations round about heard that the altar and the sanctuary were built up as before, that they were exceeding angry.
2 They thought to destroy the generation of Yaacob that were among them. They began to kill some of the people, and to persecute them.
3 Yahudah fought against the children of Esau in Idumea, and those who were in Acrabathane, because they beset the Yisrayahites around about. He made a great slaughter of them.
4 He remembered the malice of the children of Bean, who were a snare and a stumblingblock to the people, by lying in wait for them in the way.
5 They were shut up in towers by him. He set upon them, devoted them to utter destruction, burned their towers with fire, and all who were in them.
6 He passed over to the children of Ammon, where he found a mighty power, and much people. Timotheus was their captain.
7 He fought many battles with them, they were discomfited in their sight, and he smote them.
8 He took the city of Gazer and her towns, and returned into Yahudah.
9 The Gentiles that were in Galaad assembled themselves together against the Yisrayahites that were in their quarters to destroy them. They fled into the fortress of Datheman.
10 They sent letters to Yahudah and his brethren, saying: The heathens are round about, gathered together against us, to destroy us.
11 They are preparing to come, to take the fortress into which we are fled. Timotheus is the captain of their host.
12 Come, deliver us out of their hands, for many of us are slain.
13 All our brethren that were in the places of Tubin are killed. They carried away their wives and their children captives, took their spoils, and they slayed there almost a thousand men.
14 While they were yet reading these letters, behold there came other messengers out Galilee with their garments rent, who related according to these words.
15 Saying: those of Ptolemais, of Tyre, and of Sidon, were assembled against them. All Galilee is filled with strangers, in order to consume us.
16 When Yahudah and all the people heard these words, a great assembly met together to consider what they should do for their brethren that were in trouble, and were assaulted by them.
17 Yahudah said to Simon his brother: Choose men, go, deliver the brethren in Galilee. I, and my brother Jonathan, will go into the country of Galaad.
18 He left Yahusef the son of Zacharyah [Zacharias], and Azaryah [Azarias] captains of the people, with the remnant of the army in Yahud to keep it.
19 He commanded them, saying: Take charge of this people. Make no war against the heathens, till we return.
20 Now three thousand men were alloted to Simon to go into Gallilee, and eight thousand to Yahudah to go into the land of Galaad.
21 Simon went into Galilee, and fought many battles with the heathens. The heathens were discomfited before his face, and he pursued them even to the gate of Ptolemais.
22 There fell of the heathens almost three thousand men, and he took the spoils of them.
23 He took with him those that were in Galilee, and in Arbatis, with their wives, children, and all that they had, and he brought them into Yahudah with great joy.
24 Yahudah Maccabees, and Jonathan his brother, passed over the Jordan and went three days' journey through the desert.
25 The Nabutheans met them, received them in a peaceable manner, and told them all that happened to their brethren in the land of Galaad.
26 Many of them were shut up in Barasa, in Bosor, in Alima, in Casphor, in Mageth, and in Carnaim, all these strong and great cities.
27 Yea, and that they were kept shut up in the rest of the cities of Galaad. They appointed to bring their army on the morrow near to these cities, to take them, and to destroy them all in one day.
28 Yahudah and his army suddenly turned their march into the desert, to Bosor, and took the city. He slew every male by the edge of the sword, took all their spoils, and burned it with fire.
29 They removed from there by night, and went till they came to the fortress.
30 It came to pass that early in the morning, when they lifted up their eyes, behold, there were people without number, carrying ladders and engines to take the fortress, and assault them.
31 Yahudah saw that the fight was begun. The cry of the battle went up to heaven like a trumpet, a great cry out of the city.
32 He said to his host: Fight today for your brethren.
33 He came with three companies behind them, they sounded their trumpets, and cried out in prayer.
34 The host of Timotheus understood that it was Maccabees, and they fled away before his face. They made a great slaughter of them, there fell of them in that day almost eight thousand men.
35 Yahudah turned aside to Maspha, assaulted it, took it, slew every male thereof, took the spoils thereof, and burned it with fire.
36 From there he marched, took Casbon, Mageth, Bosor, and the rest of the cities of Galaad.
37 After this Timotheus gathered another army, and camped over against Raphon beyond the torrent.
38 Yahudah sent men to view the army. They brought him word, saying: All the nations that are round about us, an army exceeding great, are assembled unto him.
39 They hired the Arabians to help them, they pitched their tents beyond the torrent, ready to come to fight against you. Yahudah went to meet them.
40 Timotheus said to the captains of his army: When Yahudah and his army come near the torrent of water, if he pass over unto us first, we shall not be able to withstand him. He will certainly prevail over us.
41 But if he is afraid to pass over, and camp on the other side of the river, we will pass over to them, and prevail against him.
42 Yahudah came near the torrent of water, set the scribes of the people by the torrent, and commanded them, saying: Suffer no man to stay behind, let all come to the battle.
43 He passed over to them first, and all the people after him. All the heathens were discomfited before them. They threw away their weapons, and fled to the temple that was in Carnaim.
44 He took that city, burned the temple with fire, with all things that were therein. Carnaim was subdued, and could not stand against the face of Yahudah.
45 Yahudah gathered together all the Yisrayahites that were in the land of Galaad, from the least even to the greatest, with their wives, children, and an army exceeding great, to come into the land of Yahudah.
46 They came as far as Ephron. This was a great city situate in the way, strongly fortified. There was no means to turn from it on the right hand or on the left, but the way was through the midst of it.
47 Those who were in the city shut themselves in, and stopped up the gates with stones.
48 Yahudah sent to them with peaceable words, saying: Let us pass through your land, to go into our country. No man shall hurt you. We will only pass through on foot. But they would not open to them.
49 Then Yahudah commanded proclamation to be made in the camp, that they should make an assault every man in the place where he was.
50 The men of the army drew near. He assaulted that city all the day, and all the night, and the city was delivered into his hands.
51 They slew every male with the edge of the sword. He razed the city, took the spoils thereof, and passed through all the city over those who were slain.
52 They passed over the Jordan to the great plain that is over against Bethsan.
53 Yahudah gathered together the hindmost, and he exhorted the people all the way through, till they came into the land of Yahudah.
54 They went up to mount Sion with joy and gladness, and offered sacrifices, because not one of them was slain, till they returned in peace.
55 Now in the days that Yahudah and Jonathan were in the land of Galaad, and Simon his brother in Galilee before Ptolemais,
56 Yahusef the son of Zacharyah, and Azaryah captain of the soldiers, heard of the good success, and the battles that were fought.
57 He said: Let us also get us a name, let us go fight against the Gentiles that are round about us.
58 He gave charge to those who were in his army, and they went towards Jamnia.
59 Gorgias and his men went out of the city, to give them battle.
60 Yahusef and Azaryah were put to flight, and were pursued unto the borders of Yahudah. On that day there fell about two thousand men of the people of Yisrayah, and there was a great overthrow of the people.
61 Because they did not hearken to Yahudah, and his brethren, thinking that they should do manfully.
62 They were not of the seed of those men by whom salvation was brought to Yisrayah.
63 The men of Yahudah were magnified exceedingly in the sight of all Yisrayah, and of all the nations where their name was heard.
64 People assembled to them with joyful acclamations.
65 Yahudah and his brethren went forth and attacked the children of Esau, in the land toward the south. He took Chebron and her towns, he burned the walls thereof, and the towers all round it.
66 He removed his camp to go into the land of the aliens, and he went through Samaria.
67 In that day some priests fell in battle, they went out unadvisedly to fight while desiring to do manfully.
68 Yahudah turned to Azotus into the land of the strangers. He threw down their altars, he burned the statues of their gods with fire, he took the spoils of the cities, and returned into the land of Yahudah.

Chapter 6

1 King Antiochus was going through the higher [northern] countries. He heard that the city of Elymais in Persia was greatly renowned, abounding in silver and gold.
2 There was an exceeding rich temple in it, with coverings of gold, breastplates, and shields which king Alexander, son of Philip the Macedonian that reigned first in Greece, had left there.
3 Lo, he came, sought to take the city, and to pillage it. But he was not able, because the design was known to those who were in the city.
4 They rose up against him in battle. He fled away from there, departed with great sadness, and returned towards Babylonia.
5 While he was in Persia, there came one that told him how the armies that were in the land of Yahudah were put to flight.
6 That Lysias went with a very great power, was put to flight before the face of the Yahudim. They were grown strong by the armor, power, and store of spoils, which they got out of the camps they destroyed.
7 And that they threw down the abomination which he set up upon the altar in Yerusalem, and that they compassed about the sanctuary with high walls as before, and also Bethsura his city.
8 It came to pass when the king heard these words, he was struck with fear, and exceedingly moved. He laid himself down upon his bed, and fell sick for grief, because it did not fall out to him as he imagined.
9 He remained there many days. Great grief came more and more and more upon him, and he made account that he should die.
10 He called for all his friends, and said to them: Sleep is gone from my eyes, I am fallen away, and my heart is cast down for anxiety.
11 I said in my heart: Into how much tribulation I am come, and into what floods of sorrow, wherein I am. I who was pleasant and beloved in my power!
12 I remember the evils I did in Yerusalem. I took away all the spoils of gold and silver that were in it. I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Yahudah without cause.
13 I know these evils found me for this cause. Behold, I perish with great grief in a strange land.
14 He called Philip, one of his friends, and he made him regent over all his kingdom.
15 He gave him the crown, his robe, and his ring, that he should go to Antiochus his son, and should bring him up for the kingdom.
16 So king Antiochus died there in the year one hundred and forty-nine.
17 Lysias understood that the king was dead, and he set up Antiochus his son to reign, whom he brought up young. He called his name Eupator.
18 Those who were in the castle shut up the Yisrayahites round about the holy places. They were continually seeking their hurt, and to strengthen the Gentiles.
19 Yahudah purposed to destroy them. He called together all the people, to besiege them.
20 They came together, besieged them in the year one hundred and fifty, and they made battering slings and engines.
21 Some of the besieged got out, and some wicked men of Yisrayah joined themselves unto them.
22 They went to the king, and said: How long do you delay to execute the judgment, and to revenge our brethren?
23 We determined to serve your father, to do according to his orders, and obey his edicts.
24 Those of our nation are alienated from us for this, they slayed as many of us as they could find, and spoiled our inheritances.
25 Neither did they put forth their hand against us only, but also against all our borders.
26 Behold, they approached today to the castle of Yerusalem, to take it, and they fortified the stronghold of Bethsura.
27 Unless you prevent them speedily, they will do greater things than these, and you shall not be able to subdue them.
28 When the king heard this, he was angry. He called together all his friends, the captains of his army, and those who were over the horsemen.
29 Hired troops came to him from other realms, and from the islands of the sea.
30 The number of his army was a hundred thousand footmen, twenty thousand horsemen, and thirty-two elephants, trained to battle.
31 They went through Idumea, approached to Bethsura, fought many days, and they made engines. But they sallied forth, burned them with fire, and fought manfully.
32 Yahudah departed from the castle, and removed the camp to Bethzacharam, over against the king's camp.
33 The king rose before it was light, and made his troops march on fiercely towards the way of Bethzacharam. The armies made themselves ready for the battle, and they sounded the trumpets.
34 They showed the elephants the blood of grapes and mulberries, to provoke them to fight.
35 They distributed the beasts by the legions. By every elephant there stood a thousand men in coats of mail, with helmets of brass on their heads. Five hundred horsemen set in order were chosen for every beast.
36 These went before the beast. Wherever it went, they went, they did not depart from it.
37 Upon the beast there were strong wooden towers, which covered every one of them. Engines were upon them. Thirty-two valiant men were upon every one, who fought from above, and an Indian to rule the beast.
38 The rest of the horsemen he placed on this side and on that side at the two wings, with trumpets to stir up the army, and to hasten forward those who stood thick together in the legions thereof.
39 When the sun shone upon the shields of gold, and of brass, the mountains glittered therewith. They shone like lamps of fire.
40 Part of the king's army was distinguished by the high mountains, and the other part by the low places. They marched on warily and orderly.
41 All the inhabitants of the land were moved at the noise of their multitude, the marching of the company, and the rattling of the armor, for the army was exceeding great and strong.
42 Yahudah and his army drew near for battle, and there fell of the king's army six hundred men.
43 Eleazar the son of Saura saw one of the beasts harnessed with the king's harness. It was higher than the other beasts, and it seemed to him that the king was on it.
44 He exposed himself to deliver his people, and to get himself an everlasting name.
45 He ran up to it boldly in the midst of the legion, killing on the right hand, and on the left. They fell by him on this side and that side.
46 He went between the feet of the elephant, put himself under it, and slew it. It fell to the ground upon him, and he died there.
47 Seeing the strength of the king and the fierceness of his army, they turned away from them.
48 The king's army went up against them to Yerusalem. The king's army pitched their tents against Yahudah and mount Sion.
49 He made peace with those who were in Bethsura. They came forth out of the city, because they had no victuals, being shut up there, for it was the year of rest to the land.
50 The king took Bethsura, he placed a garrison there to keep it.
51 He turned his army against the sanctuary for many days. He set up battering slings, engines, instruments to cast fire, engines to cast stones and javelins, pieces to shoot arrows, and slings.
52 They also made engines against their engines, and they fought for many days.
53 There were no victuals in the city, because it was the seventh year. Such as stayed in Yahudah, of those who came from among the nations, ate the residue of all that which was stored up.
54 There remained in the holy places but a few, for the famine prevailed over them, and they were dispersed every man to his own place.
55 Lysias heard that Philip (whom while he lived king Antiochus appointed to bring up his son Antiochus, to reign, to be king),
56 was returned from Persia, and Media, with the army that went with him, and that he sought to take upon him the affairs of the kingdom.
57 He made haste to go, and say to the king and to the captains of the army: We decay daily, our provision of victuals is small, the place that we lay siege to is strong, and it lies upon us to take order for the affairs of the kingdom.
58 Now therefore let us come to an agreement with these men, make peace with them, and with all their nation.
59 Let us covenant with them, that they may live according to their own laws as before. They were provoked because of our despising their laws, and did all these things.
60 The proposal was acceptable in the sight of the king, and of the princes. He sent to them to make peace, and they accepted it.
61 The king and the princes swore to them, and they came out of the stronghold.
62 The king entered into mount Sion, and saw the strength of the place. He quickly broke the oath he took, and gave commandment to throw down the wall round about.
63 He departed in haste, and returned to Antioch, where he found Philip master of the city. He fought against him, and took the city.

Chapter 7

1 In the hundred and fifty-first year, Demetrius the son of Seleucus departed from the city of Rome, came up with a few men into a city of the sea coast, and reigned there.
2 It came to pass, as he entered into the house of the kingdom of his fathers, that the army seized upon Antiochus, and Lysias, to bring them unto him.
3 When he knew it, he said: Let me not see their face.
4 So the army slew them. Demetrius sat upon the throne of his kingdom.
5 There came to him the wicked and unrighteous men of Yisrayah. Alcimus was at the head of them, who desired to be made high priest.
6 They accused the people to the king, saying: Yahudah and his brethren destroyed all your friends, he drove us out of our land.
7 Send some man whom you trust, let him go, and see all the havoc he made among us, and in the king's lands. Let him punish all his friends, and their helpers.
8 The king chose Bacchides, one of his friends that ruled beyond the great river in the kingdom, and was faithful to the king.
9 He sent him to see the havoc that Yahudah made. He made the wicked Alcimus high priest, and commanded him to take revenge upon the children of Yisrayah.
10 They arose, and came with a great army into the land of Yahudah. They sent messengers, and spoke deceitfully to Yahudah and his brethren with peaceable words.
11 They gave no heed to their words, for they saw that they were come with a great army.
12 There assembled to Alcimus and Bacchides a company of the scribes to require things that are just.
13 First the Assideans that were among the children of Yisrayah, and they sought peace of them.
14 They said: One that is a priest of the seed of Aaron is come, he will not deceive us.
15 He spoke to them peaceably. He swore to them, saying: We will do you no harm, nor your friends.
16 They believed him. He took threescore of them, and slew them in one day, according to the word that is written:
17 The flesh of your saints, and the blood of them, they shed round about Yerusalem, and there was none to bury them.
18 Then fear and trembling fell upon all the people. They said: There is no truth nor justice among them. They broke the covenant, the oath which they made.
19 Bacchides removed the camp from Yerusalem, and pitched in Bethzecha. He sent and took many of those who were fled away from him. Some of the people he killed, and threw into a great pit.
20 He committed the country to Alcimus, and left troops with him to help him. So Bacchides went away to the king.
21 Alcimus did what he could to maintain his chief priesthood.
22 Those who disturbed the people resorted to him. They got the land of Yahudah into their power, and did much hurt in Yisrayah.
23 Yahudah saw all the evils that Alcimus, and those who were with him, did to the children of Yisrayah, much more than the Gentiles.
24 He went out into all the coasts of Yahudah round about, took vengeance upon the men that revolted, and they ceased to go forth any more into the country.
25 Alcimus saw that Yahudah, and those who were with him, prevailed. He knew he could not stand against them. He went back to the king, and accused them of many crimes.
26 The king sent Nicanor one of his principal lords, who was a great enemy to Yisrayah, and he commanded him to destroy the people.
27 Nicanor came to Yerusalem with a great army. He sent deceitfully to Yahudah and to his brethren with friendly words,
28 Saying: Let there be no fighting between me and you. I will come with a few men to see your faces with peace.
29 He came to Yahudah, they saluted one another peaceably, and the enemies were prepared to take away Yahudah by force.
30 The thing was known to Yahudah, that he was come to him with deceit. He was much afraid of him, and would not see his face any more.
31 Nicanor knew that his counsel was discovered, and he went out to fight against Yahudah near Capharsalama.
32 There fell of Nicanor's army almost five thousand men, and they fled into the city of David.
33 After this Nicanor went up into mount Sion. Some of the priests and the people came out to salute him peaceably, and to show him the sacrifices that were offered for the king.
34 But he mocked them, despised them, abused them, and he spoke proudly.
35 He swore in anger, saying: Unless Yahudah and his army are delivered into my hands, as soon as ever I return in peace, I will burn this house. And he went out in a great rage.
36 The priests went in, and stood before the face of the altar and the temple.
37 Weeping, they said: You, O Yahwah, chose this house for your name to be called upon therein, that it might be a house of prayer and supplication for your people.
38 Be avenged of this man, and his army. Let them fall by the sword. Remember their blasphemies, do not suffer them to continue any longer.
39 Nicanor went out from Yerusalem, and encamped near to Bethoron, and an army of Syria joined him.
40 Yahudah pitched in Adarsa with three thousand men.
41 Yahudah prayed, and said: O Yahwah, when those who were sent by king Sennacherib blasphemed you, a malak [messenger/ angel] went out, and slew of them a hundred and eighty-five thousand.
42 Even so destroy this army in our sight today, and let the rest know that he spoke ill against your sanctuary. Judge him according to his wickedness.
43 The armies joined battle on the thirteenth day of the month Adar. The army of Nicanor was defeated, he himself was first slain in the battle.
44 When his army saw that Nicanor was slain, they threw away their weapons, and fled.
45 They pursued after them one day's journey from Adazer, even till you come to Gazara, and they sounded the trumpets after them with signals.
46 They went forth out of all the towns of Yahudah round about, and they pushed them with the horns. They turned again to them, and they were all slain with the sword, there was not left of them so much as one.
47 They took the spoils of them for a booty. They cut off Nicanor's head, and his right hand, which he had proudly stretched out. They brought it, and hung it up over against Yerusalem.
48 The people rejoiced exceedingly, they spent that day with great joy.
49 He ordained that this day should be kept every year, being the thirteenth of the month of Adar.
50 The land of Yahudah was quiet for a short time.

Chapter 8

1 Yahudah heard of the fame of the Romans, that they are powerful and strong, and willingly agree to all things that are requested of them. They make amity with whosoever comes to them, and that they are mighty in power.
2 They heard of their battles, their noble acts, which they did in Galatia, how they conquered them, and brought them under tribute.
3 How great things they did in the land of Spain, they brought under their power the mines of silver and of gold that are there, and got possession of all the place by their counsel and patience.
4 They conquered places that were very far off from them. Kings came against them from the ends of the earth, and were overthrown with great slaughter. The rest pay them tribute every year.
5 They defeated Philip in battle, Perses the king of the Ceteans, and the rest that had borne arms against them, and conquered them.
6 Antiochus the great king of Asia, who went to fight against them, having a hundred and twenty elephants, with horsemen, chariots, and a very great army, was routed by them.
7 They took him alive, and appointed to him, that both he and those who should reign after him should pay a great tribute. And he should give hostages, that which was agreed upon.
8 They took country of the Indians, of the Medes, and of the Lydians, some of their best provinces. Those which they took from them they gave to king Eumenes.
9 Those who were in Greece had a mind to go and to destroy them, and they had knowledge thereof,
10 They sent a general against them, fought with them, and many of them were slain. They carried away their wives and their children captives, spoiled them took possession of their land, threw down their walls, and brought them to be their servants unto this day.
11 The other kingdoms, and islands, that resisted them at any time, they destroyed and brought under their power.
12 With their friends, and such as relied upon them, they kept amity. They conquered kingdoms that were near, and that were far off, all that heard their name were afraid of them.
13 When they had a mind to help to a kingdom, those reigned, and they were greatly exalted. Whom they would, they deposed from a kingdom.
14 None of all these wore a crown, or was clothed in purple, to be magnified thereby.
15 They made themselves a senate house, and daily consulted three hundred and twenty men, that sat in council always for the people, that they might do the things that were right.
16 They committed their government to one man every year, to rule over all their country. They all obey one, there is no envy nor jealousy among them.
17 Yahudah chose Eupolemus the son of Yahchanan, the son of Yaacob, and Jason the son of Eleazar, and he sent them to Rome to make a league of amity and confederacy with them.
18 That they might take off from them the yoke of the Grecians [Greeks], for they saw that they oppressed the kingdom of Yisrayah with servitude.
19 They went to Rome, a very long journey. They entered into the senate house, and said:
20 Yahudah Maccabees, his brethren, and the people of the Yahudim sent us to you, to make alliance and peace with you, that we may be registered your confederates and friends.
21 The proposal was pleasing in their sight.
22 This is the copy of the writing that they wrote back again, graven in tables of brass, and sent to Yerusalem, that it might be with them there for a memorial of the peace and alliance.
23 GOOD SUCCESS BE TO THE ROMANS, and to the people of the Yahudim, by sea and by land forever. Far be the sword and enemy from them.
24 If there come first any war upon the Romans, or any of their confederates, in all their dominions,
25 the nation of the Yahudim shall help them according as the time shall direct, with all their heart.
26 They shall not give them, while they are fighting, wheat, or arms, or money, or ships, as it seems good to the Romans. They shall obey their orders, without taking anything of them.
27 In like manner also if war shall come first upon the nation of the Yahudim, the Romans shall help them with all their heart, according as the time shall permit them.
28 There shall not be given to those who come to their aid, either wheat, or arms, or money, or ships, as it seems good to the Romans. They shall observe their orders without deceit.
29 According to these articles the Romans covenanted with the people of the Yahudim.
30 If after this one party or the other shall have a mind to add to these articles, or take away anything, they may do it at their pleasure. Whatsoever they shall add, or take away, shall be ratified.
31 Moreover concerning the evils that Demetrius the king did against them, we wrote to him, saying: Why did you make your yoke heavy upon our friends, and allies, the Yahudim?
32 If they come to us complaining of you, we will do them justice, we will make war against you by sea and land.

Chapter 9

1 Demetrius heard that Nicanor and his army fell in battle. He sent Bacchides and Alcimus into Yahudah, and the right wing of his army with them.
2 They took the road that leads to Galgal, and they camped in Masaloth, which is in Arabella. They made themselves masters of it, and slew many people.
3 In the first month of the hundred and fifty-second year they brought the army to Yerusalem.
4 They arose, and went to Berea with twenty thousand men, and two thousand horsemen.
5 Yahudah pitched his tents in Laisa, three thousand chosen men with him.
6 They saw the multitude of the army, that they were many, and they were seized with great fear. Many withdrew themselves out of the camp, there remained of them no more than eight hundred men.
7 Yahudah saw that his army slipped away, and the battle pressed upon him. His heart was cast down, because he did not have time to gather them together, and he was discouraged.
8 Then he said to those who remained: Let us arise, and go against our enemies, if we may be able to fight against them.
9 But they dissuaded him, saying: We shall not be able. Let us save our lives now, for we are but few. Let us return to our brethren, and then we will fight against them.
10 Yahudah said: Yahwah forbid we should do this thing, and flee away from them. If our time is come, let us die manfully for our brethren, let us not stain our glory.
11 The army removed out of the camp, and they stood over against them. The horsemen were divided into two troops, and the slingers. The archers went before the army, and those who were in the front were all men of valor.
12 Bacchides was in the right wing. The legion drew near on two sides, and they sounded the trumpets.
13 Those who were on Yahudah's side also cried out, the earth shook at the noise of the armies. The battle was fought from morning even unto the evening.
14 Yahudah perceived that the stronger part of the army of Bacchides was on the right side, and all the stout of heart came together with him.
15 The right wing was discomfited by them, and he pursued them even to the mount Azotus.
16 Those who were in the left wing saw that the right wing was discomfited. They followed after Yahudah, and those who were with him, at their back.
17 The battle was hard fought, and there fell many wounded of the one side and of the other.
18 Yahudah was slain, and the rest fled away.
19 Jonathan and Simon took Yahudah their brother, and buried him in the sepulchre of their fathers in the city of Modin.
20 All the people of Yisrayah bewailed him with great lamentation, and they mourned for him many days.
21 And said: How the mighty man is fallen, that saved the people of Yisrayah!
22 The rest of the words of the wars of Yahudah, of the noble acts that he did, and of his greatness, are not written for they were very many.
23 It came to pass after the death of Yahudah, the wicked began to put forth their heads in all the confines of Yisrayah, and all the workers of iniquity rose up.
24 In those days there was a very great famine, they and all their country yielded to Bacchides.
25 Bacchides chose the wicked men, and made them lords of the country.
26 They made diligent search after and sought out the friends of Yahudah, brought them to Bacchides. He took vengeance of them, and abused them.
27 There was a great tribulation in Yisrayah, such as was not since the day that there was no prophet seen in Yisrayah.
28 All the friends of Yahudah came together, and said to Jonathan:
29 Since your brother Yahudah died, there is not a man like him to go forth against our enemies, Bacchides, and those who are the enemies of our nation.
30 Today we choose you to be our prince, and captain in his stead, to fight our battles.
31 So Jonathan took upon him the government at that time, and rose up in the place of Yahudah his brother.
32 Bacchides had knowledge of it, and sought to kill him.
33 Jonathan and Simon his brother knew it, and all that were with them. They fled into the desert of Thecua, and they pitched by the water of the lake of Asphar.
34 Bacchides understood it, and he came himself with all his army over the Jordan on the sabbath day.
35 Jonathan sent his brother a captain of the people, to desire the Nabutheans his friends, that they would lend them their equipage, which was copious.
36 The children of Jambri came forth out of Madaba, took Yahchanan, and all that he had, and went away with them.
37 After this it was told Jonathan, and Simon his brother, that the children of Jambri made a great marriage, and were bringing the bride out of Madaba, the daughter of one of the great princes of Chanaan, with great pomp.
38 They remembered the blood of Yahchanan their brother. They went up, and hid themselves under the cover of the mountain.
39 They lifted up their eyes, and saw. Behold, a tumult, and great preparation. The bridegroom, his friends, and his brethren came forth to meet them with timbrels, musical instruments, and many weapons.
40 They rose up against them from the place where they lay in ambush, slew them, and there fell many wounded. The rest fled into the mountains, and they took all their spoils.
41 The marriage was turned into mourning, the noise of their musical instruments into lamentation.
42 They took revenge for the blood of their brother, and they returned to the bank of the Jordan.
43 Bacchides heard it, and he came on the sabbath day even to the bank of the Jordan with a great power.
44 Jonathan said to his company: Let us arise, and fight against our enemies. It is not now as yesterday, and the day before.
45 Behold, the battle is before us, the water of the Jordan on this side and on that side, and banks, marshes, and woods. There is no place for us to turn aside.
46 Cry to heaven, that you may be delivered from the hand of your enemies. And they joined battle.
47 Jonathan stretched forth his hand to strike Bacchides, but he turned away from him backwards.
48 Jonathan and those who were with him leaped into the Jordan, and swam over the Jordan to them.
49 There fell of Bacchides' side that day a thousand man. They returned to Yerusalem.
50 They built strong cities in Yahudah, the fortress that was in Jericho, in Ammaus, in Bethoron, in Bethel, Thamnata, Phara, and Thopo, with high walls, gates, and bars.
51 He placed garrisons in them, that they might wage war against Yisrayah.
52 He fortified the city of Bethsura, and Gazara, and the castle, and set garrisons in them with provisions of victuals.
53 He took the sons of the chief men of the country for hostages, and put them in the castle in Yerusalem in custody.
54 In the year one hundred and fifty-three, the second month, Alcimus commanded the walls of the inner court of the sanctuary to be thrown down, and the works of the prophets to be destroyed. He began to be destroyed, and he began to destroy.
55 Alcimus was struck at that time. His works were hindered, his mouth was stopped, and he was taken with a palsy, so that he could not speak a word, nor give order concerning his house.
56 Alcimus died in great torment at that time.
57 Bacchides saw that Alcimus was dead. He returned to the king, and the land was quiet for two years.
58 All the wicked held a council, saying: Behold. Jonathan, and those who are with him, dwell at ease, and without fear. Let us bring Bacchides here, he shall take them all in one night.
59 So they went, and gave him counsel.
60 He arose to come with a great army. He secretly sent letters to his adherents that were in Yahudah, to seize Jonathan, and those who were with him. But they could not, for their design was known to them.
61 He apprehended of the men of the country, fifty men who were the principal authors of the mischief, and slew them.
62 Jonathan, Simon, and those who were with him, retired into Bethbessen, which is in the desert. He repaired the breaches thereof, and they fortified it.
63 When Bacchides knew it, he gathered together all his multitude, and sent word to those who were of Yahudah.
64 He came, camped above Bethbessen, fought against it many days, and made engines.
65 Jonathan left his brother Simon in the city, and went forth into the country with a number of men.
66 He struck Odares, his brethren, and the children of Phaseron in their tents. He began to slay, and to increase in forces.
67 Simon and those who were with him sallied out of the city, and burned the engines.
68 They fought against Bacchides, and he was discomfited by them. They afflicted him exceedingly, for his counsel, and his enterprise was in vain.
69 He was angry with the wicked men who gave him counsel to come into their country, and he slew many of them. He purposed to return with the rest into their country.
70 Jonathan had knowledge of it, and he sent ambassadors to him to make peace with him, to restore to him the prisoners.
71 He accepted it willingly, did according to his words, and swore that they would do him no harm all the days of his life.
72 He restored to him the prisoners he took out of the land of Yahudah. He returned, went away into his own country, and he came into their borders no more.
73 So the sword ceased from Yisrayah. Jonathan dwelt in Machmas. Jonathan began to judge the people there, and he destroyed the wicked out of Yisrayah.

Chapter 10

1 Now in the hundred and sixtieth year Alexander the son of Antiochus surnamed the Illustrious, came up and took Ptolemais. They received him, and he reigned there.
2 King Demetrius heard of it, gathered together an exceeding great army, and went forth against him to fight.
3 Demetrius sent a letter to Jonathan with peaceable words, to magnify him.
4 He said: Let us first make a peace with him, before he make one with Alexander against us.
5 He will remember all the evils we did against him, against his brother, and against his nation.
6 He gave him authority to gather together an army, and to make arms, that he should be his confederate. He commanded the hostages that were in the castle to be delivered to him.
7 Jonathan came to Yerusalem, read the letters in the hearing of all the people, and of those who were in the castle.
8 They were struck with great fear, because they heard that the king gave him authority to gather together an army.
9 The hostages were delivered to Jonathan, and he restored them to their parents.
10 Jonathan dwelt in Yerusalem, and began to build, to repair the city.
11 He ordered workmen to build the walls round about mount Sion with square stones for fortification, and so they did.
12 The strangers fled away from the strongholds which Bacchides built.
13 Every man left his place, and departed into his own country.
14 Only in Bethsura there remained some of those who had forsaken the law, and the commandments of Yahwah. This was a place of refuge for them.
15 King Alexander heard of the promises that Demetrius made Jonathan. They told him of the battles, the worthy acts he and his brethren did, and the labors they endured.
16 He said: Shall we find such another man? We will make him our friend and our confederate.
17 He wrote a letter, and sent it to him according to these words, saying:
18 King Alexander to his brother Jonathan, greeting.
19 We heard of you, that you are a man of great power, and fit to be our friend.
20 Today we make you high priest of your nation, you are called the king's friend, that you be of one mind with us in our affairs, and keep friendship with us. He sent him a purple robe, and a crown of gold.
21 Jonathan put on the holy vestment in the seventh month, in the year one hundred and threescore, at the feast day of the tabernacles. He gathered together an army, and made a great number of arms.
22 Demetrius heard these words, was exceeding sorry, and said:
23 What is this we did? Alexander strengthen himself by preventing us from gaining the friendship of the Yahudim.
24 I will also write to them words of request, and offer dignities and gifts, that they may be with me to aid me.
25 He wrote to them in these words: King Demetrius to the nation of the Yahudim, greeting.
26 Whereas you kept covenant with us, and continued in our friendship, and did not join with our enemies, we heard of it, and are glad.
27 Continue to keep fidelity towards us, and we will reward you with good things, for what you did in our behalf.
28 We will remit to you many charges, and will give you gifts.
29 I free you and all the Yahudim from tributes. I release you from the customs of salt, and remit the crowns, and the thirds of the seed.
30 I leave to you from this day forward the half of the fruit of trees, which is my share, it shall not be taken of the land of Yahudah (and of the three cities that are added thereto out of Samaria and Galilee), from this day forth and forever.
31 Let Yerusalem be holy and free, with the borders thereof. Let the tenths, and tributes be for itself.
32 I also yield up the power of the castle that is in Yerusalem. I give it to the high priest, to place therein to keep it such men as he shall choose.
33 I freely set at liberty every soul of the Yahudim in all my kingdom that was carried captive from the land of Yahudah, that all be discharged from tributes, even of their cattle.
34 I will that all the feasts, the sabbaths, the new moons, the days appointed, three days before the solemn day, and three days after the solemn day, be all days of immunity and freedom for all the Yahudim that are in my kingdom.
35 No man shall have power to do anything against them, or to molest any of them, in any cause.
36 Let there be enrolled in the king's army to the number of thirty thousand of the Yahudim. Allowance shall be made them as is due to all the king's forces, and certain of them shall be appointed to be in the fortresses of the great king.
37 Some of them that are of trust shall be set over the affairs of the kingdom. Let the governors be taken from among themselves, and let them walk in their own laws in the land of Yahudah, as the king commands.
38 The three cities that are added to Yahudah, out of the country of Samaria, let them be accounted with Yahudah, that they may be under one, and obey no other authority but that of the high priest.
39 Ptolemais, and the confines thereof that are in Yerusalem, I give as a free gift to the holy places for the necessary charges of the holy things.
40 I give every year fifteen thousand shekels of silver out of the king's accounts, of what belongs to me.
41 All that is above, which those who were over the affairs the years before did not pay, from this time they shall give it to the works of the house.
42 Moreover the five thousand shekels of silver which they receive from the account of the holy places, every year, shall belong to the priests that execute the ministry.
43 Whosoever shall flee into the temple that is in Yerusalem, and in all the borders thereof, being indebted to the king for any matter, let them be set at liberty, and all that they have in my kingdom, let them have it free.
44 For the building also, or repairing the works of the holy places, the charges shall be given out of the king's revenues.
45 For the building also of the walls of Yerusalem, and the fortifying thereof round about, the charges shall be given out of the king's account, as also for the building of the walls in Yahudah.
46 When Jonathan and the people heard these words, they gave no credit to them nor received them. They remembered the great evil he did in Yisrayah, for he afflicted them exceedingly.
47 Their inclinations were towards Alexander. He was the chief promoter of peace in their regard, and they always helped him.
48 King Alexander gathered together a great army, and moved his camp near to Demetrius.
49 The two kings joined battle, and the army of Demetrius fled away. Alexander pursued after him, and pressed them close.
50 The battle was hard fought till the sun went down. Demetrius was slain that day.
51 Alexander sent ambassadors to Ptolemy king of Egypt, with words to this effect, saying:
52 I am returned into my kingdom, am set in the throne of my ancestors, have the dominion, possessed our country, and overthrew Demetrius.
53 I joined battle with him. Both he and his army were destroyed by us, and we are placed in the throne of his kingdom.
54 Now let us make friendship one with another. Give me your daughter to wife, I will be your son-in-law, and I will give both you and her gifts worthy of you.
55 King Ptolemy answered, saying: Happy is the day wherein you returned to the land of your fathers, and sat in the throne of their kingdom.
56 I will do to you as you wrote. Meet me at Ptolemais, that we may see one another, and I will give her to you as you said.
57 Ptolemy went out of Egypt, with Cleopatra his daughter, and he came to Ptolemais in the hundred and sixty-second year.
58 King Alexander met him, and he gave him his daughter Cleopatra. He celebrated her marriage at Ptolemais, with great glory, after the manner of kings.
59 King Alexander wrote to Jonathan, that he should come and meet him.
60 He went to Ptolemais honorably, he met the two kings there, he gave them much silver, gold, and presents, and he found favor in their sight.
61 Some pestilent men of Yisrayah, men of a wicked life, assembled themselves against him to accuse him. The king gave no heed to them.
62 He commanded that Jonathan's garments should be taken off, that he should be clothed with purple, and they did so. The king made him sit by himself.
63 He said to his princes: Go out with him into the midst of the city, and make proclamation, that no man complain against him of any matter, that no man trouble him for any manner of cause.
64 When his accusers saw his glory proclaimed, and him clothed with purple, they all fled away.
65 The king magnified him, enrolled him among his chief friends, made him governor and partaker of his dominion.
66 Jonathan returned into Yerusalem with peace and joy.
67 In the year one hundred and sixty-five Demetrius the son of Demetrius came from Crete into the land of his fathers.
68 King Alexander heard of it, was much troubled, and returned to Antioch.
69 King Demetrius made Apollonius his general, who was governor of Celesyria. He gathered together a great army, and came to Jamnia.
70 He sent to Jonathan the high priest, saying: You alone stand against us. I am laughed at, and reproached, because you showed your power against us in the mountains.
71 If you trust in your forces, come down to us into the plain, let us try one another there, for the strength of war is with me.
72 Ask, learn who I am, and the rest that help me, who also say that your foot cannot stand before our face, for your fathers were put to flight twice in their own land.
73 How will you be able to abide the horsemen and so great an army in the plain, where there is no stone, nor rock, nor place to flee to?
74 When Jonathan heard the words of Apollonius, he was moved in his mind. He chose ten thousand men, and went out of Yerusalem. Simon his brother met him to help him.
75 They pitched their tents near Joppe, but they shut him out of the city. A garrison of Apollonius was in Joppe, and he laid siege to it.
76 Those who were in the city were frightened, and opened the gates to him, so Jonathan took Joppe.
77 Apollonius heard of it, he took three thousand horsemen, and a great army.
78 He went to Azotus as one that was making a journey, and immediately he went forth into the plain. He had a great number of horsemen, and he trusted in them. Jonathan followed after him to Azotus, and they joined battle.
79 Apollonius left a thousand horsemen privately in the camp behind them.
80 Jonathan knew that there was an ambush behind him, they surrounded his army, and cast darts at the people from morning till evening.
81 The people stood still, as Jonathan commanded them, their horses were fatigued.
82 Simon drew forth his army, and attacked the legion. The horsemen were wearied, they were discomfited by him, and fled.
83 Those who were scattered about the plain fled into Azotus, and went into Beth-dagon their idol's temple, to save themselves there.
84 Jonathan set fire to Azotus, and the cities that were around it. He took the spoils of them, and the temple of Dagon. All those who were fled into it he burned with fire.
85 So those who were slain by the sword, with those who were burned, were almost eight thousand men.
86 Jonathan removed his army from there, and camped against Ascalon. They went out of the city to meet him with great honor.
87 Jonathan returned into Yerusalem with his people, having many spoils.
88 It came to pass when Alexander the king heard these words, he honored Jonathan yet more.
89 He sent him a buckle of gold, as the custom is, to be given to such as are of the royal blood. He gave him Accaron and all the borders thereof in possession.

Chapter 11

1 The king of Egypt gathered together an army, like the sand that lies upon the sea shore, and many ships. He sought to get the kingdom of Alexander by deceit, and join it to his own kingdom.
2 He went out into Syria with peaceable words. They opened the cities to him, and met him, for king Alexander ordered them to go forth to meet him, because he was his father-in-law.
3 When Ptolemy entered into the cities, he put garrisons of soldiers in every city.
4 When he came near to Azotus, they showed him the temple of Dagon that was burned with fire, Azotus, the suburbs thereof that were destroyed, the bodies that were cast abroad, and the graves of those who were slain in the battle, which they had made near the way.
5 They told the king that Jonathan did these things, to make him odious, but the king held his peace.
6 Jonathan came to meet the king at Joppe with glory. They saluted one another, and they lodged there.
7 Jonathan went with the king as far as the river, called Eleutherus, and he returned into Yerusalem.
8 King Ptolemy got the dominion of the cities by the sea side, even to Seleucia, and he devised evil designs against Alexander.
9 He sent ambassadors to Demetrius, saying: Come, let us make a league between us. I will give you my daughter whom Alexander has, and you shall reign in the kingdom of your father.
10 I repent that I gave him my daughter, for he sought to kill me.
11 He slandered him, because he coveted his kingdom.
12 He took away his daughter, and gave her to Demetrius. He alienated himself from Alexander, and his enmities were made manifest.
13 Ptolemy entered into Antioch, and set two crowns upon his head, that of Egypt, and that of Asia.
14 King Alexander was in Cilicia at that time, because those who were in those places had rebelled.
15 When Alexander heard of it, he came to give him battle. King Ptolemy brought forth his army, met him with a strong power, and put him to flight.
16 Alexander fled into Arabia, to be protected there, and king Ptolemy was exalted.
17 Zabdiel the Arabian took off Alexander's head, and sent it to Ptolemy.
18 King Ptolemy died the third day after, and those who were in the strongholds were destroyed by those who were within the camp.
19 Demetrius reigned in the hundred and sixty-seventh year.
20 In those days Jonathan gathered together those who were in Yahudah, to take the castle that was in Yerusalem. They made many engines of war against it.
21 Then some wicked men that hated their own nation, went away to king Demetrius, and told him that Jonathan was besieging the castle.
22 When he heard it, he was angry. He came to Ptolemais, and wrote to Jonathan, that he should not besiege the castle, but should come to him in haste, and speak to him.
23 When Jonathan heard this, he bade them besiege it still. He chose some of the ancients of Yisrayah, and of the priests, and put himself in danger.
24 He took gold, silver, raiment, and many other presents, went to the king to Ptolemais, and he found favor in his sight.
25 Certain wicked men of his nation made complaints against him.
26 The king treated him as his predecessor did before, he exalted him in the sight of all his friends.
27 He confirmed him in the high priesthood, all the honors he had before, and he made him the chief of his friends.
28 Jonathan requested of the king that he would make Yahudah free from tribute, the three governments, Samaria, and the confines thereof, and he promised him three hundred talents.
29 The king consented, he wrote letters to Jonathan of all these things to this effect.
30 King Demetrius to his brother Jonathan, and to the nation of the Yahudim, greeting.
31 We send you here a copy of the letter, which we wrote to Lasthenes our parent concerning you, that you might know it.
32 King Demetrius to Lasthenes his parent, greeting.
33 We determine to do good to the nation of the Yahudim who are our friends, and keep the things that are just with us, for their good will which they bear towards us.
34 We ratify unto them all the borders of Yahudah, and the three cities (Apherema, Lydda, and Ramatha, which are added to Yahudah out of Samaria) with all their confines, to be set apart to all those who sacrifice in Yerusalem, instead of the payments which the king received of them every year, for the fruits of the land, and of the trees.
35 As for other things that belonged to us of the tithes, and of the tributes, from this time we discharge them of them. The saltpans also, and the crowns that were presented to us.
36 We give all to them, nothing hereof shall be revoked from this time forth and forever.
37 See that you make a copy of these things, let it be given to Jonathan, and set upon the holy mountain in a conspicuous place.
38 King Demetrius saw that the land was quiet before him, and nothing resisted him. He sent all his forces away, every man to his own place, except the foreign army which he drew together from the islands of the nations. So all the troops of his fathers hated him.
39 There was one Tryphon who was of Alexander's party before. Seeing that all the army murmured against Demetrius, he went to Emalchuel the Arabian, who brought up Antiochus the son of Alexander.
40 He pressed him much to deliver him to him, that he might be king in his father's place. He told him all that Demetrius did, how his soldiers hated him. And he remained there many days.
41 Jonathan sent to king Demetrius, desiring that he would cast out those who were in the castle in Yerusalem, and those that were in the strongholds, because they fought against Yisrayah.
42 Demetrius sent to Jonathan, saying: Not only will I do this for you, and for your people, but I will greatly honor you, and your nation, when opportunity shall serve.
43 Now you shall do well if you send men to help me, for all my army is gone from me.
44 Jonathan sent him three thousand valiant men to Antioch. They came to the king, and the king was very glad of their coming.
45 Those who were of the city assembled themselves together, to the number of a hundred and twenty thousand men, and would have killed the king.
46 The king fled into the palace. Those of the city kept the passages of the city, and began to fight.
47 The king called the Yahudim to his assistance, they came to him all at once, and they all dispersed themselves through the city.
48 They slew a hundred thousand men in that day, and they set fire to the city. They got many spoils that day, and delivered the king.
49 Those who were of the city saw that the Yahudim got the city as they would. They were discouraged in their minds, and cried to the king, making supplication, saying:
50 Grant us peace. Let the Yahudim cease from assaulting us, and the city.
51 They threw down their arms, and made peace. The Yahudim were glorified in the sight of the king, and in the sight of all that were in his realm. They were renowned throughout the kingdom, and returned to Yerusalem with many spoils.
52 King Demetrius sat in the throne of his kingdom, and the land was quiet before him.
53 He falsified all whatsoever he had said, alienated himself from Jonathan, did not reward him according to the benefits he received from him, but gave him great trouble.
54 After this Tryphon returned, the young boy Antiochus with him, who was made king, and put on the diadem.
55 All the hands which Demetrius sent away assembled unto him there. They fought against Demetrius, who turned his back, and fled.
56 Tryphon took the elephants, and made himself master of Antioch.
57 Young Antiochus wrote to Jonathan, saying: I confirm you in the high priesthood. I appoint you ruler over the four cities, and to be one of the king's friends.
58 He sent him vessels of gold for his service. He gave him leave to drink in gold, to be clothed in purple, and to wear a golden buckle.
59 He made his brother Simon governor from the borders of Tyre even to the confines of Egypt.
60 Jonathan went forth and passed through the cities beyond the river. All the forces of Syria gathered themselves to him to help him. He came to Ascalon, and they met him honorably out of the city.
61 He went from there to Gaza, those who were in Gaza shut him out. He besieged it, burned all the suburbs round about, and took the spoils.
62 The men of Gaza made supplication to Jonathan, and he gave them the right hand. He took their sons for hostages, and sent them to Yerusalem. He went through the country as far as Damascus.
63 Jonathan heard that the generals of Demetrius were come treacherously to Cades, which is in Galilee, with a great army, purposing to remove him from the affairs of the kingdom.
64 He went against them, but left his brother Simon in the country.
65 Simon encamped against Bethsura, assaulted it many days, and shut them up.
66 They desired to make peace, and he granted it them. He cast them out from there, took the city, and placed a garrison in it.
67 Jonathan and his army encamped by the water of Genesar, and before it was light they were ready in the plain of Asor.
68 Behold the army of the strangers met him in the plain, and they laid an ambush for him in the mountains. But he went out against them.
69 Those who lay in ambush arose out of their places, and joined battle.
70 All that were on Jonathan's side fled. None was left of them but Mathathias the son of Absalom, and Yahudah the son of Calphi, chief captain of the army.
71 Jonathan rent his garments, cast earth upon his head, and prayed.
72 Jonathan turned again to them to battle, and they fought, and he put them to flight.
73 Those of his part that fled saw this, and they turned again to him. They all pursued the enemies with him even to Cades to their own camp, and they came even there.
74 There fell of the aliens in that day three thousand men. Jonathan returned to Yerusalem.

Chapter 12

1 Jonathan saw that the time served him. He chose certain men and sent them to Rome, to confirm and to renew the amity with them.
2 He sent letters to the Spartans, and to other places according to the same form.
3 They went to Rome, and entered into the senate house, and said: Jonathan the high priest, and the nation of the Yahudim, sent us to renew the amity and alliance as it was before.
4 They gave them letters to their governors in every place, to conduct them into the land of Yahudah with peace.
5 This is a copy of the letters which Jonathan wrote to the Spartans:
6 Jonathan the high priest, the ancients of the nation, the priests, and the rest of the people of the Yahudim, to the Spartans, their brethren, greeting.
7 There were letters sent long ago to Onias the high priest from Arius who reigned among you then, to signify that you are our brethren, as the copy here underwritten does specify.
8 Onias received the ambassador with honor, and received the letters wherein there was mention made of the alliance, and amity.
9 We needed none of these things, having the holy books that are in our hands for our comfort.
10 We chose rather to send to you to renew the brotherhood and friendship, lest we should become strangers to you altogether, for there is a long time passed since you sent to us.
11 We, at all times without ceasing, both in our festivals, and other days, wherein it is convenient, remember you in the sacrifices that we offer, and in our observances, as it is meet and becoming to remember brethren.
12 We rejoice at your glory.
13 We had many troubles and wars on every side, the kings that are round about us fought against us.
14 We would not be troublesome to you, nor the rest of our allies and friends, in these wars.
15 We had help from heaven, we were delivered, our enemies are humbled.
16 We chose therefore Numenius the son of Antiochus, and Antipater the son of Jason, and send them to the Romans to renew with them the former amity and alliance.
17 We commanded them to go to you, to salute you, and to deliver our letters, concerning the renewing of our brotherhood.
18 Now you shall do well to give us an answer hereto.
19 This is the copy of the letter which he had sent to Onias:
20 Arius king of the Spartans to Onias the high priest, greeting.
21 It is found in writing concerning the Spartans, and the Yahudim, that they are brethren, and that they are of the stock of Abraham.
22 Since this is come to our knowledge, you do well to write to us of your prosperity.
23 We write back to you that our cattle, and our possessions are yours; and yours, ours. We command that these things should be told you.
24 Jonathan heard the generals of Demetrius were come again with a greater army than before to fight against him.
25 He went out from Yerusalem, and met them in the land of Amath, for he gave them no time to enter into his country.
26 He sent spies into their camp. They came back and brought him word that they designed to come upon them in the night.
27 When the sun was set, Jonathan commanded his men to watch, and to be in arms all night long ready to fight, and he set sentinels round about the camp.
28 The enemies heard that Jonathan and his men were ready for battle, and they were struck with fear and dread in their heart. They kindled fires in their camp.
29 Jonathan and those who were with him did not know it till the morning, for they saw the lights burning.
30 Jonathan pursued after them, but did not overtake them, for they passed the river Eleutherus.
31 Jonathan turned upon the Arabians that are called Zabadeans, he defeated them, and took the spoils of them.
32 He went forward, came to Damascus, and passed through all that country.
33 Simon also went forth, and came as far as Ascalon, and the neighboring fortresses. He turned aside to Joppe, took possession of it
34 (he heard they designed to deliver the hold to those who took part with Demetrius), and he put a garrison there to keep it.
35 Jonathan came back, called together the ancients of the people, and he took a resolution with them to build fortresses in Yahudah,
36 to build up walls in Yerusalem, raise a mount between the castle and the city, to separate it from the city, that so it might have no communication, and that they might neither buy nor sell.
37 They came together to build up the city. The wall that was upon the brook towards the east was broken down, and he repaired that which is called Caphetetha.
38 Simon built Adiada in Sephela, fortified it, and set up gates and bars.
39 Tryphon conceived a design to make himself king of Asia, to take the crown, and to stretch out his hand against king Antiochus.
40 Fearing lest Jonathan would not suffer him, but would fight against him, he sought to seize upon him and kill him. So he rose up and came to Bethsan.
41 Jonathan went out to meet him with forty thousand men chosen for battle, and came to Bethsan.
42 Tryphon saw that Jonathan came with a great army, he dared not stretch forth his hand against him,
43 but received him with honor, commended him to all his friends, and gave him presents. He commanded his troops to obey him, as himself.
44 He said to Jonathan: Why have you troubled all the people, whereas we have no war?
45 Send them back to their own houses. Choose a few men that may be with you, and come with me to Ptolemais. I will deliver it to you, and the rest of the strongholds. The army, all that have any charge, and I will return and go away. This is the cause of my coming.
46 Jonathan believed him, and did as he said. He sent away his army, and they departed into the land of Yahudah.
47 He kept with him three thousand men, of whom he sent two thousand into Galilee, and one thousand went with him.
48 Now as soon as Jonathan entered into Ptolemais, they of Ptolemais shut the gates of the city, and took him. They slew with the sword and all those who came in with him.
49 Tryphon sent an army and horsemen into Galilee, and into the great plain to destroy all Jonathan's company.
50 When they understood that Jonathan and all that were with him were taken and slain, they encouraged one another, and went out ready for battle.
51 Those who came after them, seeing that they stood for their lives, returned back.
52 Whereupon they all came peaceably into the land of Yahudah. They bewailed Jonathan, and those who were with him, exceedingly. Yisrayah mourned with great lamentation.
53 All the heathens that were round about them sought to destroy them.
54 For they said: They have no prince, nor any to help them. Let us make war upon them, and take away the memory of them from among mem.

Chapter 13

1 Simon heard that Tryphon was gathering together a very great army, to invade the land of Yahudah, to destroy it.
2 Seeing that the people were in dread, and in fear, he went up to Yerusalem, and assembled the people.
3 He exhorted them, saying: You know what great battles I and my brethren, the house of my father, fought for the laws, the sanctuary, and the distresses that we have seen.
4 By reason whereof all my brethren lost their lives for Yisrayah's sake, and I am left alone.
5 Now far be it from me to spare my life in any time of trouble, for I am not better than my brethren.
6 I will avenge my nation, the sanctuary, our children, and wives. All the heathens are gathered together to destroy us out of mere malice.
7 The spirit of the people was enkindled as soon as they heard these words.
8 They answered with a loud voice, saying: You are our leader in the place of Yahudah, and Jonathan your brother.
9 Fight our battles, and we will do whatsoever you say to us.
10 Gathering together all the men of war, he made haste to finish all the walls of Yerusalem, and he fortified it round about.
11 He sent Jonathan the son of Absalom, and a new army into Joppe with him. He cast out those who were in it, and remained there himself.
12 Tryphon removed from Ptolemais with a great army, to invade the land of Yahudah, and Jonathan was in custody with him.
13 Simon pitched in Addus, over against the plain.
14 When Tryphon understood that Simon was risen up in the place of his brother Jonathan, and that he meant to join battle with him, he sent messengers to him,
15 Saying: We detained your brother Jonathan for the money he owes in the king's account, by reason of the affairs which he had the management of.
16 Now send a hundred talents of silver, and his two sons for hostages, that when he is set at liberty he may not revolt from us, and we will release him.
17 Simon knew that he spoke deceitfully to him, nevertheless he ordered the money and the children to be sent, lest he should bring upon himself a great hatred of the people of Yisrayah, who might have said:
18 Because he did not send the money, and the children, therefore he is lost.
19 So he sent the children, and the hundred talents. He lied, and did not let Jonathan go.
20 After this Tryphon entered within the country, to destroy it. They went about by the way that leads to Ador. Simon and his army marched to every place wherever they went.
21 Those who were in the castle sent messengers to Tryphon, that he should make haste to come through the desert, and sent them victuals.
22 Tryphon made all his horsemen ready to come that night, but a very great snow fell there, and he did not come into the country of Galaad.
23 When he approached to Bascama, he slew Jonathan and his sons there.
24 Tryphon returned, and went into his own country.
25 Simon sent, took the bones of Jonathan his brother, and buried them in Modin, in the city of his fathers.
26 All Yisrayah bewailed him with great lamentation, they mourned for him many days.
27 Simon built a building lofty to the sight over the sepulchre of his father and of his brethren, of polished stone behind and before.
28 He set up seven pyramids one against another for his father and his mother, and his four brethren.
29 Round about these he set great pillars, and upon the pillars arms for a perpetual memory, and by the arms carved ships, which might be seen by all that sailed on the sea.
30 This is the sepulchre that he made in Modin even unto this day.
31 Tryphon, when he was upon a journey with the young king Antiochus, slew him treacherously.
32 He reigned in his place, put on the crown of Asia, and brought great evils upon the land.
33 Simon built up the strongholds of Yahudah, fortifying them with high towers, great walls, gates, and bars. And he stored up victuals in the fortresses.
34 Simon chose men and sent to king Demetrius, to the end that he should grant an immunity to the land, for all that Tryphon did was to spoil.
35 In answer to this request, King Demetrius wrote a letter in this manner:
36 King Demetrius to Simon the high priest, friend of kings, to the ancients, and to the nation of the Yahudim, greeting.
37 We received the golden crown, and the palm, which you sent. We are ready to make a firm peace with you, and to write to the king's chief officers to release you the things that we released.
38 All that we decreed in your favor shall stand in force. The strongholds you built shall be your own.
39 As for any oversight or fault committed unto this day, we forgive it, and the crown which you owed. If any other thing were taxed in Yerusalem, now let it not be taxed.
40 If any of you be fit to be enrolled among ours, let them be enrolled, and let there be peace between us.
41 In the year one hundred and seventy the yoke of the Gentiles was taken off from Yisrayah.
42 The people of Yisrayah began to write in the instruments, and public records: The first year under Simon the high priest, the great captain and prince of the Yahudim.
43 In those days Simon besieged Gaza, and camped round about it. He made engines, and set them to the city. He struck one tower, and took it.
44 Those who were within the engine leaped into the city, and there was a great uproar in the city.
45 Those who were in the city went up with their wives and children upon the wall, with their garments rent. They cried with a loud voice, beseeching Simon to grant them peace.
46 They said: Do not deal with us according to our evil deeds, but according to your mercy.
47 Being moved, Simon did not destroy them. He cast them out of the city, cleansed the houses wherein there were idols, and then he entered into it with hymns, blessing Yahwah.
48 Having cast out of it all uncleanness, he placed in it men that should observe the law. He fortified it, and made it his habitation.
49 Those who were in the castle of Yerusalem were hindered from going out and coming into the country, and from buying and selling. They were straitened with hunger, and many of them perished through famine.
50 They cried to Simon for peace, and he granted it to them. He cast them out from there, and cleansed the castle from uncleannesses.
51 They entered into it the three and twentieth day of the second month, in the year one hundred and seventy-one, with thanksgiving, branches of palm trees, harps, cymbals, psalteries, hymns, and canticles, because the great enemy was destroyed out of Yisrayah.
52 He ordained that these days should be kept every year with gladness.
53 He fortified the mountain of the temple that was near the castle. He dwelt there himself, and those who were with him.
54 Simon saw that Yahchanan his son was a valiant man for war. He made him captain of all the forces, and he dwelt in Gazara.

Chapter 14

1 In the year one hundred and seventy-two, king Demetrius assembled has army, and went into Media to get him succours to fight against Tryphon.
2 Arsaces the king of Persia and Media heard that Demetrius was entered within his borders. He sent one of his princes to take him alive, and bring him to him.
3 He went, defeated the army of Demetrius, took him, brought him to Arsaces, and he put him into custody.
4 All the land of Yahudah was at rest all the days of Simon, and he sought the good of his nation. His power and his glory pleased them well all his days.
5 With all his glory he took Joppe for a haven, and made an entrance to the isles of the sea.
6 He enlarged the bounds of his nation, and made himself master of the country.
7 He gathered together a great number of captives, had the dominion of Gazara, of Bethsura, and of the castle. He took away all uncleanness out of it, and there was none that resisted him.
8 Every man tilled his land with peace. The land of Yahudah yielded her increase, and the trees of the fields their fruit.
9 The ancient men sat in the streets, and treated together of the good things of the land. The young men put on them glory, and the robes of war.
10 He provided victuals for the cities, and he appointed that they should be furnished with ammunition, so that the fame of his glory was renowned even to the end of the earth.
11 He made peace in the land, and Yisrayah rejoiced with great joy.
12 Every man sat under his vine, and under his fig tree, there was none to make them afraid.
13 There was none left in the land to fight against them, kings were discomfited in those days.
14 He strengthened all those of his people that were brought low. He sought the law, and took away every unjust and wicked man.
15 He glorified the sanctuary, and multiplied the vessels of the holy places.
16 It was heard at Rome, and as far as Sparta, that Jonathan was dead, and they were very sorry.
17 When they heard that Simon his brother was made high priest in his place, was possessed of all the country, and the cities therein:
18 They wrote to him in tables of brass, to renew the friendship and alliance which they made with Yahudah, and with Jonathan his brethren.
19 They were read before the assembly in Yerusalem. This is the copy of the letters that the Spartans sent.
20 The princes and the cities of the Spartans to Simon the high priest, to the ancients, the priests, and the rest of the people of the Yahudim their brethren, greeting.
21 The ambassadors that were sent to our people told us of your glory, honor, and joy. We rejoice at their coming.
22 We registered what was said by them in the councils of the people in this manner: Numenius the son of Antiochus, and Antipater the son of Jason, ambassadors of the Yahudim, came to us to renew the former friendship with us.
23 It pleased the people to receive the men honorably, to put a copy of their words in the public records, to be a memorial to the people of the Spartans. We wrote a copy of them to Simon the high priest.
24 After this Simon sent Numenius to Rome, with a great shield of gold the weight of a thousand pounds, to confirm the league with them.
25 When the people of Rome heard these words, they said: What thanks shall we give to Simon, and his sons?
26 He restored his brethren, drove the enemies of Yisrayah away in fight from them. They decreed him liberty, registered it in tables of brass, and set it upon pillars in mount Sion.
27 This is a copy of the writing: The eighteenth day of the month Elul, in the year one hundred and seventy-two, being the third year under Simon the high priest at Asaramel.
28 In a great assembly of the priests, of the people, the princes of the nation, and the ancients of the country, these things were notified: Forasmuch as there are often wars in our country,
29 Simon the son of Mathathias of the children of Jarib, and his brethren put themselves in danger, and resisted the enemies of their nation, for the maintenance of their holy places, and the law. They raised their nation to great glory.
30 Jonathan gathered his nation together, was made their high priest, and he was laid to his people.
31 Their enemies desired to tread down and destroy their country, and to stretch forth their hands against their holy places.
32 Simon resisted, fought for his nation, laid out much of his money, armed the valiant men of his nation, and gave them wages.
33 He fortified the cities of Yahudah, and Bethsura that lies in the borders of Yahudah, where the armor of the enemies was before, and he placed a garrison of Yahudim there.
34 He fortified Joppe which lies by the sea, and Gazara, which borders upon Azotus, wherein the enemies dwelt before. He placed Yahudim here, and furnished them with all things convenient for their reparation.
35 The people saw the acts of Simon, and to what glory he meant to bring his nation. They made him their prince and high priest, because he did all these things, for the justice and faith which he kept to his nation, and because he sought to advance his people by all means.
36 In his days things prospered in his hands, so that the heathens were taken away out of their country, and also those who were in the castle in the city of David in Yerusalem, out of which they issued forth and profaned all places round about the sanctuary, and did much evil to its purity.
37 He placed therein Yahudim for the defence of the country, and of the city, and he raised up the walls of Yerusalem.
38 King Demetrius confirmed him in the high priesthood.
39 According to these things he made him his friend, and glorified him with great glory.
40 He heard that the Romans called the Yahudim their friends, confederates, and brethren, and that they received Simon's ambassadors with honor.
41 The Yahudim, and their priests, consented that he should be their prince and high priest forever, till there should arise a faithful prophet.
42 He should be chief over them, he should have the charge of the sanctuary, he should appoint rulers over their works, over the country, over the armor, and over the strongholds.
43 He should have care of the holy places, he should be obeyed by all, all the writings in the country should be made in his name, and he should be clothed with purple and gold.
44 It should not be lawful for any of the people, or of the priests, to disannul any of these things, or to gainsay his words, or to call together an assembly in the country without him, or to be clothed with purple, or to wear a buckle of gold.
45 Whosoever shall do otherwise, or shall make any of these things void, shall be punished.
46 It pleased all the people to establish Simon, and to do according to these words.
47 Simon accepted thereof, was well pleased to execute the office of the high priesthood, to be captain, prince of the nation of the Yahudim, of the priests, chief over all.
48 They commanded that this writing should be put in tables of brass, and that they should be set up within the compass of the sanctuary, in a conspicuous place.
49 A copy thereof should be put in the treasury, that Simon and his sons may have it.

Chapter 15

1 King Antiochus the son of Demetrius sent letters from the isles of the sea to Simon the priest, and prince of the nation of the Yahudim, and to all the people.
2 The contents were these: King Antiochus to Simon the high priest, and to the nation of the Yahudim, greeting.
3 Forasmuch as certain pestilent men usurped the kingdom of our fathers, my purpose is to challenge the kingdom, to restore it to its former estate. I chose a great army, and built ships of war.
4 I design to go through the country that I may take revenge of those who destroyed our country, and that made many cities desolate in my realm.
5 I confirm unto you all the oblations which all the kings before me remitted to you, and what other gifts soever they remitted to you.
6 I give you leave to coin your own money in your country.
7 Let Yerusalem be holy and free. All the armor that was made, and the fortresses which you built, which you keep in your hands, let them remain to you.
8 All that is due to the king, and what should be the king's hereafter, from this present and forever, is forgiven you.
9 When we recover our kingdom, we will glorify you, your nation, and the temple, with great glory, so that your glory shall be made manifest in all the earth.
10 In the year one hundred and seventy-four Antiochus entered into the land of this fathers, and all the forces assembled to him, so that few were left with Tryphon.
11 King Antiochus pursued after him, he fled along by the sea coast, and came to Dora.
12 He perceived that evils were gathered together upon him, and his troops had forsaken him.
13 Antiochus camped above Dora with a hundred and twenty thousand men of war, and eight thousand horsemen.
14 He invested the city, and the ships drew near by sea. They annoyed the city by land, and by sea. They suffered none to come in, or to go out.
15 Numenius, and those who were with him, came from the city of Rome, having letters written to the kings, and countries, the contents whereof were these:
16 Lucius the consul of the Romans, to king Ptolemy, greeting.
17 The ambassadors of the Yahudim our friends came to us, to renew the former friendship and alliance, being sent from Simon the high priest, and the people of the Yahudim.
18 They also brought a shield of gold of a thousand pounds.
19 It seemed good to us to write to the kings, and countries, that they should do them no harm, nor fight against them, their cities, or countries. And that they should give no aid to those who fight against them.
20 It seemed good to us to receive the shield of them.
21 If therefore any pestilent men are fled out of their country to you, deliver them to Simon the high priest, that he may punish them according to their law.
22 These same things were written to king Demetrius, to Attalus, to Ariarathes, to Arsaces,
23 to all the countries, to Lampsacus, to the Spartans, to Delus, Myndus, Sicyon, Caria, Samus, Pamphylia, Lycia, Alicarnassus, Cos, Side, Aradus, Rhodes, Phaselis, Gortyna, Gnidus, Cyprus, and Cyrene.
24 And they wrote a copy thereof to Simon the high priest, and to the people of the Yahudim.
25 King Antiochus moved his camp to Dora the second time, assaulting it continually, and making engines. He shut up Tryphon, that he could not go out.
26 Simon sent to him two thousand chosen men to aid him, silver also, and gold, and abundance of furniture.
27 He would not receive them, but broke all the covenant that he made with him before, and alienated himself from him.
28 He sent Athenobius one of his friends to him, to treat with him, saying: You hold Joppe, Gazara, and the castle that is in Yerusalem, which are cities of my kingdom.
29 You wasted their borders, you made great havoc in the land, and got the dominion of many places in my kingdom.
30 Now therefore deliver up the cities that you took, and the tributes of the places whereof you got the dominion without the borders of Yahudah.
31 But if not, give me five hundred talents of silver for them, and for the havoc you made, and the tributes of the cities, another five hundred talents. Or else we will come and fight against you.
32 Athenobius the king's friend came to Yerusalem, saw the glory of Simon and his magnificence in gold, and silver, and his great equipage. He was astonished, and told him the king's words.
33 Simon answered him, and said to him: We have neither taken other men's land, neither do we hold that which is other men's. It is the inheritance of our fathers, which was for some time unjustly possessed by our enemies.
34 Having opportunity we claim the inheritance of our fathers.
35 As to your complaints concerning Joppe and Gazara, they did great harm to the people, and to our country. Yet for these we will give a hundred talents. Athenobius did not answer him a word.
36 He returned in a rage to the king, made report to him of these words, of the glory of Simon, of all that he had seen, and the king was exceeding angry.
37 Tryphon fled away by ship to Orthosias.
38 The king appointed Cendebeus captain of the sea coast, and gave him an army of footmen and horsemen.
39 He commanded him to march with his army towards Yahudah. He commanded him to build up Gedor, to fortify the gates of the city, and to war against the people. But the king himself pursued after Tryphon.
40 Cendebeus came to Jamnia, began to provoke the people, to ravage Yahudah, to take the people prisoners, to kill, and to build Gedor.
41 He placed horsemen there, and an army, that they might issue forth and make incursions upon the ways of Yahudah, as the king commanded him.

Chapter 16

1 Yahchanan came up from Gazara, and told Simon his father what Cendebeus did against their people.
2 Simon called his two eldest sons, Yahudah and Yahchanan, and said to them: I, my brethren, and my father's house, fought against the enemies of Yisrayah from our youth even to this day. Things prospered so well in our hands that we delivered Yisrayah oftentimes.
3 I am old. You be instead of me, and my brethren. Go out, fight for our nation, and the help from heaven be with you.
4 He chose out of the country twenty thousand fighting men, and horsemen, they went forth against Cendebeus, and they rested in Modin.
5 They arose in the morning, and went into the plain. Behold, a very great army of footmen and horsemen came against them, and there was a running river between them.
6 He and his people pitched their camp over against them. He saw that the people were afraid to go over the river, so he went over first, then the men passed over after him.
7 He divided the people, and set the horsemen in the midst of the footmen. The horsemen of the enemies were very numerous.
8 They sounded the holy trumpets. Cendebeus and his army were put to flight, there fell many of them wounded, and the rest fled into the stronghold.
9 At that time Yahudah Yahchanan's brother was wounded, but Yahchanan pursued after them, till he came to Cedron, which he had built.
10 They fled even to the towers that were in the fields of Azotus, and he burnt them with fire. There fell of them two thousand men, and he returned into Yahudah in peace.
11 Ptolemy the son of Abobus was appointed captain in the plain of Jericho, and he had abundance of silver and gold.
12 He was son-in-law of the high priest.
13 His heart was lifted up, and he designed to make himself master of the country. He purposed treachery against Simon, and his sons, to destroy them.
14 Simon, as he was going through the cities that were in the country of Yahudah, and taking care for the good ordering of them, went down to Jericho, he and Mathathias and Yahudah his sons, in the year one hundred and seventy-seven, the eleventh month, the same is the month Sabath.
15 The son of Abobus received them deceitfully into a little fortress, that is called Doch which he had built. He made them a great feast, and hid men there.
16 When Simon and his sons had drunk plentifully, Ptolemy and his men rose up, took their weapons, entered into the banqueting place, slew him, his two sons, and some of his servants.
17 He committed a great treachery in Yisrayah, and rendered evil for good.
18 Ptolemy wrote these things and sent to the king that he should send him an army to aid him. He would deliver him the country, their cities, and tributes.
19 He sent others to Gazara to kill Yahchanan. He sent letters to the tribunes to come to him, that he would give them silver, gold, and gifts.
20 He sent others to take Yerusalem, and the mountain of the temple.
21 One running before told Yahchanan in Gazara, that his father and his brethren were slain, and he sent men to kill you also.
22 When he heard it he was exceedingly afraid. He apprehended the men that came to kill him, and he put them to death. He knew they sought to take him away.
23 As concerning the rest of the acts of Yahchanan, his wars, the worthy deeds which he bravely achieved, the building of the walls which he made, and the things that he did,
24 behold, these are written in the book of the days of his priesthood, from the time he was made high priest after his father.

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